Egypt has the highest population/area ratio in Africa and the Middle East. Most of Egypt’s 80Milion inhabitants live along the Nile River. Half of them live in urban areas such as Cairo, Alexandria and the Nile Delta. The populated area is equivalent to 7.8% of the total area.
The country is divided into 29 governorates within its 6 geographical areas of Upper Egypt, Central Egypt, North Upper Egypt, Metropolitan Cairo, the Canal Zone, and the Delta.
Egypt prides itself with its 7,000 years history, which attracts a large number of tourists to the country. The country has seen a high amount of foreign ruling, but since the 20th century it is ruled by Egyptians. The majority is Sunni Muslim but a significant minority of Copts is spread across the country.
The country’s natural resources include: natural gas, petroleum, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead and zinc.
The Egyptian economy has experienced a movement/transition from a state-led economy to a market economy. Oil and gas are Egypt’s main source of income. Second in line comes tourism which generated $10.76 billion. Most tourists come from Russia, Great Britain and Germany. Two further important sources of income are remittances and the Suez Canal. Today it is the most industrialized country In Africa after South Africa. However, agriculture too, is still an important factor in the economy with a 15% share. Egypt’s agricultural sector is projected to increase as Egypt tries to become more independent in regard to imports of foodstuffs. Though the country is limited by its deserts, new methods of farming are being tested to evade the problem of space.
|Economic growth||4.7% (2008/2009)|
|GDP – real growth rate||5.5% July - Dec. 2010/2011|
|GDP per capita||$6,200 (2010 est.)|
|Labor force||26.1 million (2010 est.)|
|Labor force by occupation||Agriculture: 32%
Services: 51% (2010 est.)
|Unemployment rate||9.7% (2010 est.)|
|Population below poverty line||20% (2005 est.)|
|Budget||revenues: $46.82 billion
Expenditures: $64.19 billion (2010 est.)
|Public debt||80.5% of GDP (2010 est.)|
|Agriculture – products||cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables, cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats|
|Industries||textile, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbon, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures|
|Exports||$25.34 billion (2010 est.)|
|Exports – commodities||crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food|
|Export partners||US 7.95%, Italy 7.26%, Spain 6.78%, Saudi Arabia 5.53%, Syria 5.3%, France 4.39%, South Korea 4.27% (2009)|
|Imports||46.52 billion (2010 est.)|
|Imports: commodities||machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, word products, fuels|
|Import partners||US 9.92%, China 9.63%, Germany 6.98%, Italy 6.88%, Turkey 4.94% (2009)|